EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD
3150 -2686 BC
Although there is evidence of human activity in north east Africa for more than 10,000 years, the hunter-gathering population migrated towards the more fertile area of the Nile Valley as the climate changed in the Paleolithic period. At this time their lifestyle changed to a more settled agricultural style.
Nobody knows why the Egyptian civilisation developed but according to Manetho's interpretation, it began with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt around 3100BC under one king, Narmer or Menes.
Evidence for this comes from discoveries at Hierakonopolis, north of Aswan, in Upper Egypt in 1897-98, which was the ancient city of Nekhem, dedicated to the god Horus. The principle finds were sculpted palletes and maceheads, which identified "Scorpion" and Narmer. Scorpion was depicted wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt with Narmer wearing both the White Crown and the Red Crown of Lower Egypt suggesting that Narmer was the King of both Upper and Lower Egypt. It was presumed therefore that Scorpion preceded Narmer but before the unification of the two lands.
The earliest historical evidence for Narmer comes from the "Narmer Palette", a piece of dark green slate, showing various scenes of battle and a victorious king - Narmer - wearing the White Crown of Upper egypt and the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and his name depicted in hieroglyphics.
Dynasty 1 :
|First king of first Dynasty. His name means "Fighting Hawk" Founder of the capital city at Memphis. Reigned for 62 years. His tomb, B is the largest in the NW cemetary at Abydos.||Second king of first Dynasty. Reigned for 57 years. Indications of possible military campaign against Palestine or Sinai. Wife Queen Herneith. Tomb O at Abydos.||Third king of first Dynasty. Also refered to as Zet and Uadji. Tomb Z at Abydos. His funerary stele is now at the Louvre in Paris.||Fourth king of first Dynasty. Also known as Udimu. Reigned for 20 years.||Fifth king of first Dynasty. Reigned for 26 years. Name means "safe is his heart". His tomb is the smallest royal tomb X at Abydos.||Sixth king of first Dynasty reigned for 9 years. Thought to be a userper because he erased his predecessors name from stone vases and was omitted from the kings list at Saqqara. his tomb U at Abydos is superior and larger than his predecessor.T||Last king of first Dynasty reigned for 26 years. Large tomb Q at Abydos revealed stele of him wearing the tall white crown of Upper Egypt. Now in Louvre Paris|
|First king of second Dynasty reigned for 38 years but little to show from it||Second king reigned for 39 years. Introduced worship of the sacred goat of Mendes, the sacred bull of Mnevis and the Apis bull of Memphis||Third king of second Dynasty ruled for 47 years. A military campagn in the 13th year attacked the city of Shem-Re and the House-of- the-North.||Fourth king of second Dynasty came to throne under the name of Sekhemib and reigned for 17 years, changing his name to Seth-Peribsen after religious rivalry between the two gods Horus and Seth.||Last king of the second Dynasty, ruled for 30 years. His huge tomb at Abydos is unique being trapezoidal in shape. The kings sceptre of gold was found in a stone burial chamber at the centre of his tomb.|